SABANA DI JAWA BALI LOMBOK SERTA KEKUNOAN SABANA BALURAN (Sabana in Java Bali Lombk and Ancient of Baluran Sabana)

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Sutomo
Eddie van Etten

Abstract

Savanna is a type of ecosystem in the lowlands or highlands, where the community consists of several trees that are spread unevenly and the lower layers are dominated by grasses. Savanna is very common in very dry areas in Nusa Tenggara. However, in some places in Java, Savanna can also be found. The widest Savanna in Java is Savanna in Baluran National Park, East Java. Information about the occurrence and formation (composition of vegetation) of Savanna in Indonesia, especially in wet areas, such as Java, Bali and Lombok, is still very rare. This paper compares and distinguishes the characteristics of vegetation from four Savanna (Java - Bali - Lombok) in the ‘wet’ area ‘which has a higher rainfall than the eastern region where savanna is more common in the Indonesian archipelago, to find out what the vegetation features are like can tell us about the origin, maintenance and age of this savanna. The results of this study indicate there are different gradients in elevation (along with related climatic factors such as temperature and rainfall) and fire regimes associated with floristic composition in Savanna Java, Bali and Lombok. Each Savanna is characterized by a variety of different woody and grass species, where Invasive Alien Species (IAS), such as Acacia nilotica, Lantana camara and Chromolaena odorata, are very important in distinguishing between Savanna and other savannas? The characteristics of the species from Savanna Baluran indicate that this ecosystem may be an old Savanna, while other Savanna may be newly formed and their existence is maintained by fire or fire.
ABSTRAK
Sabana adalah tipe ekosistem di dataran rendah atau dataran tinggi yang komunitasnya terdiri atas beberapa pohon yang tersebar tidak merata dan lapisan bawahnya didominasi oleh suku rumput-rumputan. Sabana sangat umum dijumpai di wilayah yang sangat kering di Nusa Tenggara. Meskipun demikian, di beberapa tempat di Pulau Jawa juga dapat dijumpai sabana. Sabana terluas di Pulau Jawa adalah sabana di Taman Nasional Baluran, Jawa Timur. Informasi tentang bagaimana terjadinya serta formasi (komposisi vegetasi) sabana di Indonesia, terutama di daerah basah, seperti Jawa, Bali, dan Lombok, masih sangat jarang. Makalah ini membandingkan dan membedakan karakteristik vegetasi antara empat sabana daerah ‘basah’ di Jawa, Bali, dan Lombok yang memiliki curah hujan lebih tinggi dibanding sabana di kawasan timur Kepulauan Indonesia. Perbandingan ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui fitur vegetasi yang memuat informasi tentang asal-usul, pemeliharaan (maintenance), dan usia sabana ini. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat gradien yang berbeda dalam hal elevasi (bersama dengan faktor iklim terkait, seperti suhu dan curah hujan) dan rezim api terkait dengan komposisi floristik di sabana Jawa, Bali, dan Lombok. Setiap sabana dicirikan oleh berbagai spesies berkayu dan rumput yang berbeda yang di dalamnya Invasive Alien Species (IAS), seperti Acacia nilotica, Lantana camara, dan Chromolaena odorata, menjadi jenis yang sangat penting untuk membedakan antara sabana dan sabana yang lain. Karakteristik spesies sabana Baluran menunjukkan bahwa ekosistem ini mungkin merupakan sabana tua, sedangkan sabana yang lain mungkin baru terbentuk dan keberadaannya tetap terpelihara oleh adanya api atau kebakaran.

Article Details

How to Cite
Sutomo, & Etten, E. van. (2019). SABANA DI JAWA BALI LOMBOK SERTA KEKUNOAN SABANA BALURAN (Sabana in Java Bali Lombk and Ancient of Baluran Sabana). Jurnal Penelitian Arkeologi Papua Dan Papua Barat, 11(1), 19-27. https://doi.org/10.24832/papua.v11i1.263
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